HISTORY OF FRANCE.
printed by E. Harding.
Frogmore Lodge, Windsor.
HISTORY OF FRANCE.
printed by E. Harding.
Frogmore Lodge, Windsor.
1st, Merovingian Race.
Thieri I11. Rois faineans,
|Pepin Heristel Maire du Palais.|
They were a Northern Nation who had established themselves in Gaul in the year 287, and were confirmed in their possessions (under their leader Clodion) by the Emperor Julian 438.
Pharamond, Clodion Merovee, and Childeric are placed at the head of the first race of Kings, but few events are known of their reigns, and Clovis is regarded as the founder of the French Monarchy and of the Merovingian race. 481
| He extended his dominions on every side by his victories over the Romans, the Germans, and the Visigoths. He was the first Christian king of France. During his reign Paris became the Capital of that Kingdom. He married Clotilda, daughter of Chilperic King of the Burgundians, and died in the year 511 leaving.|
1st Thierri an illegitimate son.
by Clotilde his Wife he had.
| France was divided between the four sons of Clovis, who reigned at Metz, Orleans, Paris, and Soissons, but the Kingdom was re-united in the person of his youngest son Clotaire 560. He added Burgundy to the French Empire and died in 562. He had six wives and left four sons,|
| Clotaire's four sons shared the Empire, which continued divided under them and their sons till the reign of Clotaire 11, 613. During this period the different Kingsmade war against each other; assassinations, and every species of cruelties were committed, in which two Queens, Brunehaut and Fredegonde were chieffy [lit.] concerned.|
Clotaire I1, had three Wives, Ist Hadeltrude, 2d, Bertrude, and 3d, Sichilde, and died in 628. leaving 1st, Dagobert who succeeded his Father.
2d Charibert to whom part of the Kingdom had been allotted died soon after his Father.
| He made his eldest son king of that part of the Empire called Austrasie. During his reign the authority of the Maires du Palais ( who originally were principal officers of the King's Houshold) began to absorb that of the Sovereign. He married 1st Gomantrude. 2d Nantilde. 3d Ragnetrude. 4th Wlfgonde. 5th Berthilde. and died in 638.|
|France was divided between the two sons of Dagobert, various revolutions took place, (to which the Maires du Palais contributed) till in 673 when the Monarchy was reunited in the person of Thieri 111, the first of the Rois faineans.|
Thieri 111 ,died in 690
Clovis 111, in 695
Childebert 111, in 711
Dagobert 111, in 716
Chilperic 1I, in 725
Thieri 1V, in 736
Maires du Palais, Pepin Heristel died in 714.|
Charles Martel his natural son. Carloman and Pepin le bref his sons.
| Childeric 111, was dethroned and confined in a Monastery, in him ends the Merovingian race.|
Pepin proclaimed King in 751, He is the first King of the Carlovingian Race. His reign was glorious, and he succeeded in all his enterprizes. He appointed the General assemblies of the nation to be held in the Month of May, instead of March as they had formerly been. He divided his succession between his two sons. His Wife was Bertha Daughter to the Count of Laon. He died in 768 leaving two sons.
|Charlemagne soon became master of the whole Kingdom by the death of his Brother Carloman. He subdued the Saxons ( whom he converted to Christianity ) and the Lombards, and extended his dominion over the greatest part of Europe. He was crowned Emperor of the West, by Pope Leo 111, in 800. Learning revived under his patronage. His Wives were 1st Hemiltruda, 2d Hermengarde,) from both of whom he was divorce. ) 3d Hildegarde, 4th Fastrade, and 5th Sutgarde. He died in 814, leaving several Children, and was succeeded in the Empire and Kingdom by his son Lewis surnamed Le Debonnaire.|
|His three elder sons, with whom he had divided his dominions, enraged at his proposing to them to dismember their shares in favour of their younger Brother Charles le Chauve, rebelled against him; the end of his reign was torn by these divisions, which twice deprived him of his Crown. He died as he was marching to oppose the victorious arms of his son Lewis in 840.|
| His 1st wife was Ermangarde, by whom he had.|
1st, Lothaire, first Emperor and
King of Italy.
2d Pepin, King of Aquitaine.
3d Lewis, King of Bavaria and
By his second wife, Judith of Bavaria, he had.
4th Charles le Chauve who succeeded him in the Kingdom of France. He had to oppose the arms of his Brother, and also those of the Normans, who had begun to ravage the Kingdom during the reign of his Father. He was crowned Emperor in 875. He had two Wives, 1st Ermentrude, 2d Bichilde Sister to Boson King of Arles, and died by poison in 877.
| Lewis le Begue succeeded him. He contended for the Empire, but did not obtain it. He was obliged to dismember great part of his domains in order to satisfy those who had not shared in his donations at his accession, from hence arose the many Duchies. Lordships, and Baronies possessed by subjects in France. He died in 879|
Of Ansgarde his 1st Wife who
1st Lewis. | shared the Kingdom
2d Carloman | on the death of their
Of Adelaide his 2d Wife.
3d Charles le Simple, afterwards King of France.
|The two sons of Lewis le Begue were succeeded by Charles le Gras in 884. His successor was Eudes Count of Paris in 888, at whose death Charles le Simple ascended the Throne in 898. Unable to oppose the ravages of the Normans. he granted to their leader, Rollo, a tract of land which was called Normandy, and in his favour erected into a Duchy invassalage [lit.] to the Crown of France.|
|In his reign the Kings of France lost the dignity of Emperor, which became elective. He was confined the last years of his life at Peronne. Raoul Duke of Burgundy was elected King. (Hugues the Great of the Famil of Eudes refusing that rank) Lewis d'Outremer, son to Charles the simple did not ascend the Throne till the death of Raoul in 936.|
|He took his surname from having been educated in England, where his Mother fled with him. Hugues the great recalled and placed him on the Throne. He was in 954 succeeded by his son Lothaire. The authority of the Kings of France was now almost annihilated, and their dominions extremely reduced. Lothaire dying in 987 his son Lewis (le faineant) ascended the Throne. In him ends the Carlovingian Race, Hugues Capet, son to Hughes the Great being proclaimed King at his death in 987.|
|He had to defend his Crown against Charles, Duke of Lorraine, son to Lewis d'Outremer, he subdued and made him Prisoner. He is the head of the third Race of Kings. So great was the ignorance which prevailed at this period that even few Princes knew how to read. He married Adelaide Daughter to the Duke of Guyenne and died in 996. leaving Robert who was crowned King during his Father's reign. and three Daughters.|
| He was humane, generous, and learned, for the age he lived in. Having married Bertha who was related to him, he was persecuted by the Pope, and at length obliged to divorce her, to avoid the consequences of an excommunication, which in those ages of bigotry would have separated his subjects from him. He married secondly Constance of Provence, and died in I031 leaving.|
1st Hugues who died before his
2d Henry 1, King of France.
3d Robert, head of the first Royal
branch of Dukes of Burgundy.
4th Eudes, and two Daughters.
By the assistance of Robert, surnamed Le Diable, Duke of Normandy, he overcame the enemies which his Mother( who favoured his younger Brother Robert ) raised against him. He married Anne Daughter to Joradislas Duke of Russia, and died in 1060 leaving.|
1st Philip I, King of France.
3d Hugues, who became Count of
Vermandois by marrying the
heiress of that title.
| The only remarkable event during his long and inglorious reign, is his marrying Bertrade de Montfort Countess of Anjou while her husband and his Queen were both alive. He was, on this account, ex communicated by the Pope, and did not obtain absolution till some years after. He died in 1108, leaving.|
1st Lewis V1, surnamed le Gros,
who succeeded his Father.
2d Henry died young.
| He was active, vigorous, affable, and generous, but not a great politican, as appeared during his wars with Henry 1, King of England. However he increased the authority of the Crown by lessening that of its vassals. He married Adelaide daughter to the Count of Maurienne and Savoy, and died in 1137, his children were.|
1st Philip died before his Father.
2d Lewis V11,( le Jeune ) King of
5th Robert, ancestor to Anne He-
iress of Britanny.
| By Eleanor of Poitou he had.|
|Philip's ambition was unbounded, but he possessed great abilities both as a warrior and politician. He recovered Normandy, and several other provinces from the English, and his military glory was established, by the victory he gained at Bouvines, over the Emperor Otho 1V, and his allies. In the begining of his reign he engaged in a Crusade. He died in I223. He had three Wives. The 1st, Isabella of Hainaut was Mother to his successor.|
| Lewis VI11, succeeded his Father. Before his accession to the Throne he had attempted the conquest of England, invited thither by the discontented Barons during the stormy reign of King Iohn.|
His short reign was chiefly spent in a crusade against the Albigenses in the prosecution of which he died. He married Blanche of Castille. by whom he had.
|1st Philip who died young.|
2d St. Lewis, IX, King of France.
3d Robert Count of Artois.
4th Philip, died young.
5th John, died young.
6th Alphonso Count of Poitiers
7th Stephen, died young.
8th Charles Count of Anjou and
Provence and King of Naples.
and two Daughters.
|He possessed the courage and magnanimity of a hero, the justice and integrity of a Patriot, and the mildness and humanity of a Philosopher. Unfortunately these virtues were of less use to his subjects from being blended with a superstitious zeal for Religion, which made him engage in two Crusades, in the last of which he died of the plague at Tunis in 1270. He married Margaret of Provence.|
| By whom he had.|
1st Lewis, died young.
2d Philip 111, le Hardi succeeded
to the Crown.
3d John died young.
4th John died at Tunis.
5th Peter Count of Alencon.
6th Robert Count of Clermont who married Beatrix of Bourbon and was ancestor to Henry IV.
And Five Daughters.
| Philip 111, was surnamed le Hardi, from having saved the French army after the death of his Father, to whom however he was much inferior in merit. He had two wives, Isabella of Arragon and Mary of Brabant, and died in I285.|
By Isabella he had.
1st Lewis who was poisoned.
2d Philip 1V, le Bel who suc-
ceeded his Father.
3d Charles Count of Valois, whose
son Philip became King of
4th Robert died an infant.
By Mary he had.
5th Lewis Count of Evreux.
and two Daughters.
| Philip 1V, le Bel was ambitious, haughty, and vindictive; but deserves to be commended for the spirit with which he withstood the encroachments of Pope Boniface V111. He instituted Parliaments, and admitted the third estate into the National Assembly. His reign is sullied by the cruelties he exercised against the Knights Templars, whose order he abolished. He married Joan heiress and Queen of Navarre and died in 1314.|
| 1st Lewis X, ( Hutin ) succeeded|
2d Philip V, ( le Long ) King of
3d Charles IV, (le Bel) King of
4th Robert died young.
5th Isabella married Edward 11,
King of England, and in her right
Edward 11I, claimed the crown
|Lewis X, began his reign with an act of injustice, in causing his Father's Prime Minister Marigny to be hanged, for pretended crimes, but in fact to seize his riches. He married 1st Margaret of Burgundy, by whom he had Joan, Queen of Navarre as heiress to her Grand Mother; 2ly Clementa of Hungary and died without male issue 1316.|
| Philip the V was not till after some dispute with regard to the succession proclaimed King; on this occasion the Salick Law is first mentioned, which declares that the Crown of France can never descend to a Female. He married Joan of Burgundy, and leaving only daughters was succeeded by his Brother in I322.|
Charles 1V, possessed no shining talents, nor during his short reign did he do any thing to promote either the good of his subjects or his own glory. As he left no son he was succeeded by his Cousin Philip of Valois in 1328.
| Philip V1, during the first years of his reign obtained the appellation of Fortunate, and character of prudent, but he was over matched by the superior fortune and superior genius of Edward I11, King of England, who disputed his right to the crown, and in support of his own claim invaded France, gained the battle of Cressy, and took Calais. He married 1st Jane of Burgundy, 2dly Blanch of Evreux, and died in 1350, leaving.|
1st, Iohn who succeeded his Father.
4th Iohn. all three died young.
5th, Philip Duke of Orleans.
And two Daughters.
|Iohn, tho' distingushed [lit.] by his scrupulous honour and fidelity, and not deficient in personal courage, wanted the prudence and foresight his difficult situation required. He was taken prisoner at the Battle of Poictiers, and conducted to England by Edward the Black Prince, during his captivity his kingdom was distracted by intestine commotions, and the intrigues of Charles the bad, King of Navarre. He regained his liberty by the Treaty of Bretigny, but returning to England to adjust some articles of it, which had not been observed, he died there in 1364.|
| By his first wife Bona of Luxembourg he had,|
Ist Charles V, who succeeded his
Father, and was surnamed the
Wise. He is the first Heir-appar-
ent to the crown who bore the
title of Dauphin.
2d Lewis Duke of Anjou, ancestor
to the second branch of Kings of
Naples of that name.
3d John Duke of Berri.
4th Philip le Hardi, ancestor of the
last line of Dukes of Burgundy
And four Daughters.
| Charles V, was well qualified by his prudence and experience to repair the losses the kingdom had sustained. He never appeared at the head of his army, but exerted his wisdom and policy to restore order, while his brave general Bertrand du Guesclin, defeated his enemies, and stript the English of most of their conquests in France. He married Joan of Bourbon, and died in 1380. His children were.|
1st Charles VI, who succeeded to
2d Lewis Duke of Orleans Grand
father to Lewis X11, and Great
Grand-father to Francis 1.
Several other Children who all died young.
| Charles V1 came young to the crown, and having been seized with a disorder which affected his intellects, the kingdom became a prey to the ambition and intrigues of his Queen ( Isabella of Bavaria ) and two contending factions, called the Burgundians and Armagnacs. To add to the horrors of a civil war, Henry V, of England, invaded France, obtained a victory at Agincourt, and by the Treaty of Troye was declared heir to the crown. The unhappy King died in 1422.|
his children were
all died before their Father.
5th Charles V11, King of France.
6th Philip died young.
and six Daughters, of whom the youngest, Catherine, married Henry V, King of England.
|Charles V11, conciliated the affection of his subjects by his many amiable qualities, and tho' at his accession the greatest part of the Kingdom was under the dominion of the English, so well was he supported by the bravery of his Generals and Troops, ( the latter inspired with supernatural courage when led by Joan d'Arc the Maid of Orleans, who pretended to a divine mission ) that he recovered from them all they possessed in France except Calais. These successes obtained him the surname of the Victorious. His latter days were embittered by the revolts of the Dauphin. He married Mary of Anjou and died in 1461.|
| His children were.|
1st Lewis who succeeded his Fa-
3d Philip. both died young.
4th Charles, successively Duke of
Berry, of Normandy and of
and eight Daughters.
|Lewis X1, was cruel, rapacious, and deceitful, but his art often defeated itself. His leading object was the aggrandizement of the Monarchy by depressing the power of the Nobles, aud [lit.] the re-union of the great Fiefs to the crown, in the prosecution of which he met with opposition, and was guilty of the most atrocious acts of cruelty and treachery. However he enlarged his kingdom, reduced his subjects to obedience, and made his government respected at home and abroad. He married 1st Margaret of Scotland, and 2ly Charlotte of Savoy, and died in 1483.|
| His children were.|
1st Joachim who died an infant.
2ly Charles succeeded his Father,
3d Francis Duke of Berri.
4th Louisa. both died young.
5th Ann married Peter de Bourbon,
Lord of Beaujeu.
6th Joan married Lewis Duke of
Orleans, afterwards Lewis X11.
|Charles V111, was only twelve years old when he ascended the Throne; his Sister Ann de Beaujeu governed during his minority notwithstanding the opposition of the Duke of Orleans next heir to the crown. He annexed Britanny to his dominions by marrying the heiress of that Duchy, tho' he was betrothed to Margaret of Austria. The last yeare of his reign were employed in the conquest of the Kingdom of Naples, which he lost as rapidly as he had made himself master of it. His disposition was gentle and obliging, he was fond of pleasure and incapable of application. He did without issue in 1498.|
|Lewis X11 by his indulgence ot [lit.] his subjects procured the surname of Father of his people; but his fatal ambition of reigning in Italy brought many misfortunes on himself and his Kingdom. He joined in the league of Cambary against the Republic of Venice, and after having assisted his allies in conquering its territories, they not only deserted him, but became his most inveterate enemies. He divorced his 1st wife Joan, Daughter of Lewis X1, that he might marry Ann of Britanny the Dowager Queen; soon after whose death he married Mary sister to Henry V111, of England. As he left only daughters, he was succeeded by Francis Count of Angoulesme.|
|Francis I, was brave, enterprizing and magnificent, fond of pleasure and a protector of Literature. The generosity of his character rendered him an unequal rival to the Emperor Charles V, with whom he had concurred for the Imperial Crown. The greatest part of his reign was spent in wars with that Prince; but his arms were not crowned with success, and he was himself made prisoner at the battle of Pavia. He married 1st, Claud, Daughter to Lewis XI1, and 2ly Eleonora Queen Dowager of Portugal, sister to the Emperor and died in 1547.|
| His children were.|
1st Francis Dauphin died of poi-
son in 1536.
2ly Henry 11 succeeded his Father
3d Charles Duke of Orleans.
And four Daughters.
|Henry 1I was not deficient in abilities, and was ably supported by the Duke of Guise and the Constable of Montmorency in his wars with the Emperor, his son Philip II, and the English. The loss of the battle of St. Quintin was repaireh [lit.] by the taking of Calais. He persecuted the Protestants who began to be very numerous in the Kingdom. His wife was Catherine of Medicis, and he died of a wound received in a Tournament in 1559.|
| His children were,|
1st Francis 11, who succeeded his
2d Lewis died young.
3d Charles 1X, King of France.
4th Henry 111, King of France,
5th Francis, Duke of Anjou.
And four Daughters, of whom Margaret married the King of Navarre, afterwards Henry 1V of France.
|Francis II, on account of his youth the Guises were placed at the head of the government; they were able and aspiring and increased the hatred the Princes of the Blood entertained for them; by persecuting the Protestant religion, which those Princes professed. Hence arose the troubles which distracted the Kingdom for so many years. He married Mary Queen of Scots and dying without issue was succeeded by his next Brother in I560.|
|Charles 1X ; during his minority Catherine of Medicis the Queen Mother administered the government, and by following her maxim of Dividing to govern increased the public troubles. The King, who inherited her ferocity and dissimulation, pursued the same system and alternately favoured the different parties; at length having lulled the Protestants ( or Huguenots ) in a delusive confidence, he commanded the massacre of St, Barthelemi in which 60,000 of that religion lost their lives. He married Elizabeth of Austria, and was succeeded by his Brother at his death, which happened in 1574.|
|Henry 11 possessed great dissimulation, but neither understanding, vigour, or application sufficient to restore the royal authority. The weakness of his conduct gave rise to the Holy League, of which at first he declared himself chief; but the power of the Guises annihilating his own, and being abandoned by almost all his Catholic subjects, he joined the King of Navarre the next heir to the Crown and head of the Protestants, with whom he laid siege to Paris, where he was assassinated in 1589 by James Clement a Dominican Friar. He married Louisa of Lorraine.|
|Henry 1V. Tho' uniting all the brilliant talents of a hero, to the amiable qualities which endear in private life, it was not till he had embraced the Roman Catholic Religion that the whole nation submitted to him. He is the first king of the branch of Bourbon, and is stiled the great. He married 1st Margaret of Valois, Sister to the three last Kings from whom he was divorced, and 2ly Mary of Medicis. Under his wise and paternal Government the kingdom recovered tranquillity and splendour; he granted the Edict of Nantes in favour of the Protestants; seconded by his Minister Sully he restored order in the finances, encouraged arts and commerce, and|
|had planned the humiliasion [lit.] of the House of Austria, when he fell a victim to the fanaticism of Ravaillac who assassinated him in 16I0.|
His children were,
Ist Lewis who succeeded his Fa-
2d A Prince who died young.
3d John Baptist Gaston, Duke of
4th Elizabeth married Philip 1V,
5th Christina, married the Duke
6th Henrietta Maria married Charles 1, King of Great Britain.
|Lewis X1I1, inherited few, if any, of his Father's talents, and was incapable of suppressing the disturbances which had arisen during his minority, and the weak administration of the Queen Mother; but the superior genius of Cardinal Richelieu restored tranquillity to the Kingdom. This minister tho' ruling with a rod of iron and hated at home, made the nation so respectable abroad that she began to take the lead in the affairs of Europe. He engaged her in a glorious war with the House of Austria, which terminated some years after his death by the Treaty of Westphalia 1648.|
| The King married Anne of Austria and died in 1643 leaving.|
1st Lewis X1V, succeeded to the
2d Philip Duke of Orleans ancestor to the present Duke of that title.
|Lewis X1V, was well-bred, magnificent, fond of pleasure, an tho' illiterate himself a munificent Patron of learning and the polite arts. His reign, which during his minority had been disturbed by civil commotions, was glorious for many years, but his arrogance, ambition, and insatiable thirst of glory, which engaged him in several unjust wars and made him act as if he were sole sovereign in Europe, roused the jealousy and hatred of the other Powers, and occasioned the misfortunes which almost overwhelmed him in the war he maintained towards the end of his life to establish his Grand-son on the throne of Spain. He revoked the Edict of|
|Nantes. His Wife was the Infanta Maria Theresa, and she died in I7I5. By whom he had,|
Lewis, Dauphin, who died before his Father, leaving three sons by his wife Mary Ann Christina Victoria of Bavaria.
|Lewis XV, tho' of a moderate and equitable disposition, entered into several wars which were not always founded on justice, and concluded the Family Compact with the King of Spain chiefly with a view to crush the power of Great Britain. He was brave, but possessed few talents, and suffered himself to be governed by his Mistresses, who had great influence in the affairs of State. He treated the Parlement of Paris in the most arbitrary manner for exerting itself in opposition to the Jesuits, but was himself at last obliged to banish them. His Wife was Maria Lesczynsky, Daughter to Stanislaus the expelled King of Poland, and he died in 1774.|
| His children were,|
1st Lewis, Dauphin, died before his Father. He married Ist Maria Theresa Infanta of Spain, 2ly Maria Josepha of Saxony, and left issue.
| Lewis XV1, was religious, humane, and beneficent, bnt [lit.] was barbarously rewarded by his ungrateful subjects for his endeavours to redress their grievances, and govern them as a Father. In a first revolution ( in 1789, ) his power was greatly abridged, in a second( August 1792, ) he was deposed, and after a trial in which neither laws nor justice were attended to, he was condemned to death, and publickly beheaded January xxi, 1793. He married Maria Antoinetta Arch Duchess of Austria, who was also beheaded some months after him.|
His children were,
1st Louis died young.
2d Louis Charles.
3d Maria Theresa Charlotte.
| The National Convention having declared Monarchy abolished and France, a Republic, this young Prince is not acknowledged, but detained a prisoner at Paris. He is by right,|
Lewis XV11, King of France and of Navarre, and according to the title given to his predecessors, should be styled His most Christian Majesty.
He was born March xxvii 1785.