HISTORY OF PORTUGAL.
printed by E. Harding,
Frogmore Lodge, Windsor.
HISTORY OF PORTUGAL.
printed by E. Harding,
Frogmore Lodge, Windsor.
Portugal, the ancient Lusitania, is situated to the West of Spain. At the decline of the Roman Empire it shared the fate of the other Spanish provinces, being subdued successively by the Suevians, the Alains, the Visigoths and the Moors. When Spain shook off the yoke of these barbarians, Portugal also recovered its liberty, and became one of the Kingdoms of that country.
|Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal, grandson of Robert 1st. Duke of Burgundy, having come to the assistance of Alphonso 1V. King of Castile and Leon, against the Moors, received, as the reward of his services, the hand of Theresa, natural daughter of Alphonso, who made him, at the same time, Count of Lusitania. Henry was a brave and pious Prince: he re-established the Episcopal Sees in the cities he took from the Moors. He died in 1112, and was succeeded by his Son Alphonso Henriquez.|
|Alphonso Henriquez 1st. King of Portugal, did not begin to govern till in 1128, his mother continuing Sovereign to that time. He obliged the King of Castile to relinquish the homage he required of him for his dominions. Having in 1139, gained a victory over five Moorish Kings, he, to commemorate it, placed five small shields on his escutcheon, and was proclaimed King by his troops, which title was confirmed to him by the States, who at the same time made laws for the succession to the crown, which are still in force in Portugal.|
|By these, if the King survives his eldest Son, his younger Sons inherit the crown in preference to his grandson, and in default of male issue, a daughter succeeds him in preference to a brother, provided she does not marry a foreigner. Alphonso continued to gain victories over the Moors until his death, in I185, at the age of 90. He married the daughter of Amadeus duke of Savoy, and was succeeded by his Son Sancho.|
|Sancho 1st. King of Portugal, inherited all the bravery of his father, and exerted it like him against the Moors. With the assistance of the fleets of English, German and Dutch Crusaders, he made himself Master of the Capital of the Algarvians, and recovered Lisbon, which had formerly been taken by Alphonso, but afterwards retaken by the King of Morocca, He assumed the title of King of the Algarvians and, died in 1211. leaving three Sons, the eldest of whom Alphonso succeeded him, and five daughters. Berengera the youngest married Waldemar King of Denmark.|
|Alphonso 11. King of Portugal surnamed the fat. The only memorable action recorded of him is a victory he gained over the Moors in 1217. He died in 1223, having married Urraqua daughter of Alphonso 1V. King of Castile, by whom he had five Sons, the two eldest of whom, Sancho and Alphonso, were successively Kings of Portugal, and one daughter Leonora, married to Waldemar Prince of Denmark.|
|Sancho II. surnamed Capel because his Mother had made him wear the Monastic habit, reigned for some years with glory, having gained considerable advantage over the Moors; but afterwards abandoning himself to pleasure, and leaving his favorites to govern, the Portuguese became discontented, and applied to the Pope Innocent 1V, for redress, who having admonished him in vain, excommunicated him, and gave the regency to his brother Alphonso. Sancho (1227) obtained assistance from the King of Castile, and was at first successful, but the publication of the Bull of excommunication|
|amongst his troops produced so much consternation, that they disbanded, and he was obliged to retire to Toledo where he died in I248. He was an amiable Prince, but did not possess the dexterity, which is requisite to govern in factious times.|
|Alphonso 111, who had married Matilda Countess of Boulogne, and widow of Philip son of Philip Augustus King of France, was recalled into Portugal on the excommunication of his brother, and governed as Regent until his death, when he was crowned King. He carried his conquests over the Moors beyond the river Guadiana. In 1252, he divorced his Wife Matilda, to marry Beatrix Guzman, natural daughter of the King of Castile: on his refusal to obey the injunction of the Pope to retake his former Wife, he was excommunicated and his Kingdom put under interdict, which continued until the|
|death of Matilda, when he obtained the Popes approbation to his marriage with Beatrix. He died in 1279, having several children by his second marriage, of whom Denis the eldest succeeded him.|
|Denis, the Liberal and the Father of his people, was an accomplished Prince. He founded an University at Lisbon, which he afterwards removed to Coimbra, and, by granting it great privileges, attracted to it many learned men from all parts of Europe: the Portuguese Language, from having been a mixture of Latin and Vandal, now acquired more regularity. He encouraged Agriculture, and did not disdain to employ himself personally in it. Far from profiting by the divisons [lit.] of his neighbours, he became a mediator between them. His latter days were embittered by|
|the revolt of his son Alphonso, but, by the intermission of his Wife (Elizabeth, Infanta of Arragon), an accommodation was effected, and Alphonso succeeded to the crown, on the death of his father, in 1325.|
|Alphonso 1V, the Brave and the Proud, did not degenerate from the valor of his ancestors, like them he gained brilliant victories over the Moors. He however, in 1355, tarnished the glory of his reign by his cruelty to Donna Inéz de Castro, the mistress of his eldest son Pedro, who, he caused to be assassinated, at the instigation of two of his most confidential advisers, who suggested to hm that Pedro would declare her children heirs to the Crown. He did not long survive this act of barbarity, but died in 1357. His wife was Beatrix of Castile.|
|Pedro 1st, was no sooner on the Throne than he revenged the death of his beloved Inéz on her murderers; he declared she was his wife, and caused her remains to be taken from the grave, and re-interred with royal honors. The exactness with which this Prince caused justice to be administered, procured him the surname of the Justiciary and the Severe. He died in 1367, and was succeeded by Ferdinand, his son, by Constantia of Castile. He left several children by Inéz, and one natural son John, by Theresa Lorenzo, who was King of Portugal after the death of Ferdinand.|
|Ferdinand, claiming the inheritance of the Kingdom of Castile as grandson of Beatrix, attacked Henry who had succeeded to it on the death of Peter the Cruel, but was obliged to agree to an accommodation in 1371: he soon renewed hostilities, but tho' assisted by English troops under the command of the Duke of Lancaster, who also had pretensions on the inheritance of Peter, his arms were unsuccessful, and he was obliged to sue for peace. 1371. In 1381, the war was renewed, the Castilians took many cities of Portugal, when Edmund Earl of Cambridge brought succours to Ferdinand, and peace was|
|restored. Ferdinand, married Leonora Tellez, whose first husband was still living, by whom he had one daughter, Beatrix, married to Iohn King of Castile, who, on the death of Ferdinand, in 1383, claimed the Crown, but the Portuguese declared themselves in favor of Iohn, son of Pedro 1st, by Thereza Lorenzo.|
|Juan, or Iohn 1st, The Great, and Father of His Country, was at first only declared Regent, and leader of the war against the King of Castile, but in 1385, the states elected him King, it being urged that Beatrix, (from her Mothers first husband being alive when she married Ferdinand) was not legitimate, and there being no other lawful heir to the crown, the had a right to chuse their own sovereign. The same year he gained a victory over the King of Castile, and rewarded Nuno Alvarez Pereira, who had been second in command with the dutchy of Braganza, the heiress to which afterwards married|
|Alphonso, natural son to Iohn, and from this union springs the family which now reigns in Portugal. Iohn, by Policy regained the royal domains, which had been alienated by his predecessors. He formed a respectable Navy, which he employed with equal success in annoying his enemies, and in protecting his subjects. He took Ceuta from the Moors, and overawed the states of Barbary. He had several sons, who all signalized themselves by their valour, and abilities, but especially Don Henry duke of Viseu whose bold and enlightened mind led him to improve, and protect navigation. Under his auspices the|
|Island of Madeira, the Azores, and Cape Verd; were discovered, as also the different Capes to within eight degrees of the Line. Iohn married Philippa of Lancaster and died in 1433.|
Edward. The only remarkable event in his reign, was, an unfortunate expedition against Tangiers, in which his troops were beat, and his brother Ferdinand left as hostage till the restoration of Ceuta to the Moors, which being too valuable a possession to be relinquished by the Portuguese, he remained in captivity to the time of his death.|
Edward died of the plague in 1458, and was sncceeded [lit.] by his eldest son Alphonso.
|Alphonso V, the African, being only six years old when he ascended the throne, the regency was intrusted to his Uncle Don Pedro, whose daughter Isabella he married in 1468, and whom he afterwards (deceived by false reports) disgraced. Pedro, retired from court, headed some troops for his own defence, and was killed in an engagement, but it was not long before his Nephew, convinced of the injustice he had done him, re-established his memory. Alphonso made several descents on the coast of Africa, in the last of which he took Tangiers. On the death of Henry King of Castile, he being now a widower, projected to|
|marry the supposed daughter of that Prince, with a view to succeed him. He entered Castile with an army, but being defeated, he repaired to the court of Lewis XI, King of France, to solicit assistance; not succeeding in his request, he determined to resign his crown, and go to the Holy Land, but from this he was dissuaded, and returned to his dominions, where he died of the Plague 1481, leaving one son, Iohn, his successor, and a daughter Joanna, who refused to marry Charles the V11I, King of France, the Emperor Maximilian, and Richard the 111, King of England, and became a Nun.|
|Iohn, 11, the Perfect, had already signalized himself by military exploits, when he ascended the throne. He was a Prince of the profoundest sagacity, and most extensive views; under his patronage, the Portuguese prosecuted their discoveries with ardour and success. The River Zara, on the other side of the Line, conducted them to the Kingdom of Congo, where they made easy conquests, and established an advantageous trade. Bartholomew Diaz, passed the extreme point of Africa, to which he gave the name of the Stormy Cape, but the King, who saw the importance of this discovery, stiled it the|
|Cape of Good Hope. Iohn, whose superior abilities and many virtues had procured him the surname of the perfect, died in 1495, at the age of Forty, and having no issue was succeeded by his cousin Emanuel duke of Viseu.|
|Emmanuel the Fortunate, banished the Jews, suffering those only to remain under certain restrictions, who would embrace Christianity, but these restrictions causing a sedition, he was obliged to revoke them in 1507. The Prince pursued the great project of his predecessors. He sent out a fleet under Vasco de Gama, who doubling the Cape of Good Hope, arrived at Calicut on the Coast of Malabar, at that time the emporium of India, and thus opened to his countrymen the richest commerce in the world, which they soon monopolized. In 1500. Alvarez Cabral in his passage to India sailing to the West,|
|discovered Brazil, which he took possession of in the name of his master; arrived at Calicut, a disagreement took place with the Samonin or Emperor, some Portuguese were massacred, and in revenge the City was set on fire. After this rupture, the pacific system of the Portuguese was abandoned, and commerce was henceforth established by the sword. Albuquerque, to secure to Portugal the trade of the East, ruined the settlements of the Arabs, (its greatest enemies) on the Red Sea. He made himself Master of Goa, and of Ormus in the Persian Gulf: Voyages were made to China, and Pegu on the Coast of Bengal was discovered. Emanuel died in 1521.|
He married 1st. Isabella of Arragon, who dying the year after, he married 2ly (having obtained a despensation from the Pope) her Sister Mary, by whom he had issue|
Iohn, his successor.
Henry, Cardinal afterwards
King of Portugal.
Anthony. and Mary.
Elizabeth wife of the Emperor
Mary Beatrix wife of Charles
3d duke of Savoy.
His 3d, wife was Eleonora sister of Charles 5th.
|Iohn 3d. Under His reign the Portuguese continued to prosper in Africa and India, tho' the Indians vigorously opposed their establishing themselves in the Island of Ormus, and at Calicut. Iohn established the Inquisition in his dominions, and granted his protection to the Jesuits, even taking himself the vows of that order, having obtained the Popes permission to retain at the same time his Crown. He died in 1557, and having survived his six sons, was succeeded by his Grandson Sebastian then only three years old. His daughter Mary married Philip, 3d, King of Spain.|
|Don Sebastian, in his minority was placed under the guardianship of his Grand Mother Catherina of Austria; who resigned that office in 1562, to his Great Uncle Cardinal Henry. Animated by the spirit of Chivalry, Don Sebastian determined to signalize himself against the Moors. He espoused the cause of Muley Mahomet who had been disposessed of the Kingdoms of Fez and Morocco, by his Uncle Muley Molock, and contrary to the advice of his wisest counsellors, he embarked with an Army of 20,000 Men for Africa; the Army of the enemy was superior, they met at Alcazar-quivir, and after a despe-|
rate engagement, the Portuguese were totally routed, or rather destroyed, being all either killed or taken prisoners. Among the slain was Don Sebastian. The two Moorish Princes were also left on the field of Battle.|
Don Sebastian leaving no issue, was succeeded by his Great Uncle Cardinal Henry.
|Henry, being advanced in years, and very infirm, a great number of competitors arose for the crown, among these were Philip 11, King of Spain, Nephew to Henry by the Mothers side, The duke of Braganza married to a grand-daughter of the great Emanuel, Don Antonio Prior of Crato, natural son of the Infant Don Lewis second son of Emanuel. The duke of Savoy, the duke of Parma, Catherine of Medicis, and even the Pope, who attempted to revive the obsolete claim of the Holy See to the sovereignty of Portugal. Henry assembled the States, and proposed Philip, for his successor, but he was rejected. Henry died in 1580.|
|Philip 1st, and 2d, in Spain. His claim was not the best, but he had most power to enforce it. He sent the duke of Alva with an Army into Portugal, who gained two victories over Don Antonio, who of all the competitors, alone pretended to assert his title by arms. These victories decided the contest. Philip was crowned at Lisbon, and proclaimed in India. He convoked the States, in which it was decreed that Portugal should remain a seperate Kingdom, with Lisbon for its Capital, where the Councils and Tribunals should reside. He published an amnesty, but so full of restrictions, that it hardly deserved that name.|
|many of the nobility and clergy were imprisoned and executed. Philip became so odious that conspiracies were formed against him and he found it necessary to return to Spain for his own safety. Three different Impostors attempted to pass for Don Sebastian, but without success. Philip died in 1598. Though his government was cruel, yet the Portuguese agree, he reigned with less inhumanity than the other Kings of Spain.|
|Philip 2d, and 3d, of Spain, Was proclaimed King on the death of his Father. The despotism with which his Ministers governed, treating Portugal as a province of Spain. incensed the Portuguese, and disposed them to support an adventurer, who assumed the name of Don Sebastian. He resembled in person that unfortunate Prince; and related his misfortunes with such an appearance of truth, that he persuaded many, and the Portuguese were ready to acknowledge him, when he was arrested by the grand Duke of Tuscany, and delivered up to Philip, who put him to death.|
|The Dutch availing themselves of the troubles in Portugal, seized on the Moluccas, and under this and the following reign deprived that country of the greatest part of its possessions in the East Indies, and in America. Philip died in 1621.|
|Philip 3d, and 4th, in Spain. By his cruelty and inflexibility, or rather than of his Minister Olivarez. He increased the hatred, of the Portuguese: a law to compel the Nobility, under forfeiture of their estates, to take up Arms for the subjection of the Catalonians, and other circumstances conspired to hasten a revolution. An impenetrable plot had been forming for upwards of three years in favour of Iohn duke of Braganza, (whose grand-Father had been deprived of his right to the crown by Philip 11,) and was carried into execution with incredible facility, and with little bloodshed; Vasconcelle, the|
|Spanish Secretary, and one of his clerks were the only victims to public vengeance. The duke of Braganza was unanimously proclaimed King of Portugal. under the name of Iohn 1V. All the Portuguese settlements in Asia, and in Africa, and those in the Islands in the Eastern and Western Ocean, expelled their Spanish governors. Portugal became again an independent state.|
|Iohn the 4th, was decended from Iohn Ist, by his natural son Alphonso. He found enemies in the younger branches of hs own family, who in concert with Spain conspired his ruin, but fortunately were discovered and punished. All the Sovereigns of Europe acknowledged his title, except the Emperor, and the King of Spain. The latter attempted to recover Portugal, but without success. In 1654, the Dutch were driven from Brazil by the Portuguese, but they took from them the Island of Ceylon. Iohn had no brilliant qualities, but he maintained himself on the throne with dignity, by his pru-|
dence, his piety, and the goodness of his heart, and still more by following the wise counsels of his Queen. He died in 1656. He married Louisa de Guzman, sister of the duke of Medina Sidonia, by whom he had.|
Alphonso, his successor.
Pedro, afterwards King of Por-
Catherine, married to Charles
11, King of England.
Under the reign of Iohn 1V, the heir to the crown of Portugal began to be stiled Prince of Brazil.
|Alphonso V1, succeeded his Father under the guardianship of his Mother, who governed with wisdom: she resigned the regency in 1662. The misconduct of Alphonso, his excesses and ill treatment of his Wife, Mary of Savoy duchess of Nemours, revolted the Portuguese who obliged him to resign the government in 1667. His Brother Don Pedro was appointed Regent, he married the Queen( wife of Alphonso) after her former marriage had been declared void, and a dispensation from the Pope had been obtained. In 1668, a period was put to the war with Spain, by a treaty in which the independence of the crown of Portugal was acknowledged. Alphonso died in 1683,|
|Pedro 11, was crowned King on the death of his brother Alphonso. He at first declared himself in favour of Philip the V, right to the crown of Spain, and entered into a league offensive and defensive with that Prince, but in I703, he broke that treaty, and employed his forces to support the claim of the Archduke Charles. Pedro is celebrated for his sobriety. He was so able a Politican that foreign Ministers preferred transacting business with his Ministers than with himself. He died of an apoplexy in 1706. By his first wife, Mary of Savoy, he had one daughter who died young. He married secondly|
Mary Elizabeth, daughter of William Elector Palatine, by whom he had.|
Iohn Francis Anthony Joseph,
Frances Xaviera Josepha.
|Iohn V, was faithful to the engagement his Father had made with the Archduke Charles, and his Alies, [lit.] but his arms were not successful. In 1713, he made peace with France, and in 1715, he made peace with Spain, from which time his kiugdom [lit.] enjoyed tranquility during the remainder of his reign. Iohn projected many reforms iu [lit.] the government, but the ill state of his health for the last eight years of his life, and the inabilty, [lit.] or unwillingness of his ministers to second his views prevented his good intentions being put in execution. He loved justice, and encouraged arts and sciences, the Royal Academy|
of History owes its foundation to him. He supported his station with dignity, and made himself more feared than beloved by the nobility. He died in 1750. Iohn married Maria Ann Josepha Antoinette, daughter of the Emperor Leopold 1st, by whom he had issue.|
Joseph his successor.
Pedro, grand Prior of Crato,
who in 1760. married his niece
Maria Frances Isabella.
Mary Magdalen, married Ferdinand, V1, King of Spain.
|Joseph, concluded treaties with the king of Spain, to settle the limits of their respective territories in America. In 1755, a violent Earthquake laid the City of Lisbon in ruins, and about 10,000 persons perished; and many of the survivors were rendered destitute, of the means of subsistence. The British parliament voted 100,000l, to the sufferers. This event was followed by a conspiracy against the life of Joseph in 1758. Less superstious [lit.] than his predecessors, he had banished the Jesuits from his court, he had also repressed the encroachments of the nobles. The plot failed when it was so near taking effect that the king was dangerously wounded.|
|The principal conspirators, in which number were the duke of Aveiro, the marquis of Tavora, Malagrida, Alexander, and Mathos, three Jesuits, were executed, and Jesuits of all descriptions were banished the kingdom; but the discontents of the nobility and clergy continued. Such was the state of Portugal when, on Joseph's refusal to co-operate in the scheme of the kings of France and Spain for the humiliation of Great Britain, it was invaded by the Spaniards, but with the assistance of the English, they were expelled in 1762, and the year after, peace was restored. Joseph having no male issue, his eldset [lit.] daughter, according to the funda-|
mental laws, was heiress to his crown, and in compliance with the wishes of his subjects. he gave her in marriage to hsi brother Don Pedro. He made many wise regulations both civil and military, and encouraged arts and sciences, in all which he was ably seconded by the marquis de Pombal his minister. He died in 1777. He married the Infanta Maria Ann Victoria, daughter of Philip V, king of Spain, by whom he had issue.|
Maria Frances Isabella, who
Maria Frances Benedicta, mar-
ried her nephew Joseph Fran-
cis Xavier, who died in 1788.
Maria Frances Isabella, reigning Queen of Portugal, and of Algarve, married her Uncle, who on her accession to the Throne, was proclaimed king, by the title of Pedro 111. He died in 1786, having had issue.|
Joseph Francis Xavier, who
married his aunt Maria Fran-
ces Benedicta, and died with-
out issue in 1788.
Iohn Maria Lewis Joseph Prince
of Brazil, and regent, married
Charlotte Joaquina, Infanta
of Spain, and has issue.
Isabella Maria Frances.
Anthony Joseph, Prince of Beira.|
Her majesty having been rendered incapable of governing by an unfortunate mental derangement, her son the Prince of Brazil was declared Regent in 1799.
The sovereigns of Portugal are styled His( or Her ) Most Faithful Majesty,