Printed by E. Harding,
Frogmore Lodge, Windsor.
Printed by E. Harding,
Frogmore Lodge, Windsor.
OF ANCIENT ROME
The city of Rome was founded by Romulus. He appointed a Senate of an hundred persons, and divided the generality of the inhabitants into tribes. After a war with the Sabines he agreed that Tatius their king should rule with him; which, he did for five years. Romulus thirty eight years.
Year of the world 3231
B. C. 753
|ii||B. C. 715|
After an interregnume of one year, Numa Pompilius, a Sabine, became king of Rome. He was a pacifick Prince, and made useful establishments for the religion and civil rights of his people, he also regulated the Calendar. He reigned forty three years.|
Year of Rome 38
|iii||B. C. 2671|
Tullus Hostilius succeeded Numa. He made improvements in the art of war. was liberal to his people, and, after a war with the Albans, destroyed their City which had subsisted 487 years. He also made war on the Veians and many Latian States. He reigned thirty one years.|
Year of Rome 82
|iv||B. C. 639|
Ancus Martius, grandson of Numa, was an excellent king; he encouraged religion and agriculture, defeated and made peace with the Latins, and admitted many of them into the city, which he enlarged; and he established a commercial port at Ostia. He reigned twenty four years.|
Year of Rome 114
|v||B. C. 616|
Tarquinius Priscus, of Greek extraction, and a native of Etruria, had the care of the sons of Ancus Martius, but obtained the crown by haranguing the people; he introduced arts and splendour, sent out colonies, and made conquests, he was killed by the sons of Ancus. He reigned 38 years.|
Year of Rome 137
|vi||B. C. 578|
The assassins of Tarquinius fled, and he was succeeded by Servius Tullus, who married his daughter. Servius was a good and brave Prince; he numbered the citizens, and coined money. It was thought he intended to form a republick under two annual magistrates; but he was murdered by order of his son in law Tarquin. reigned 45 years.|
Year of Rome 175
|vii||B. C. 533|
Tarquin the proud, son of Tarquinius Priscus, took possession of the throne without being elected like his predecessors; after a reign of 25 years the people, irritated by his conduct and that of his sons, particularly on account of Lucretia, drove out the family.|
Year of Rome 220
|viii||B. C. 508|
Establishment of the Roman republick under two Magistrates who were changed annually, and entitled Consuls. The two first were Collatinus the husband of Lucretia, and Brutus his friend, whose father had been put to death by Tarquin.|
Year of Rome 245
|ix||Year of Rome 257|
After many fruitless attempts, made by the Tarquins to recover their kingdom, in which they were assisted by Porsenna, king of Etruria, and the principal Latian cities, they were finally defeated at the Lake Regillus, by the Dictator Posthumius; the two sons of Tarquin the proud and his son in law, Manilius, were killed, and his cause was abandoned. He retired to Cuma, in Campania, where he died in the 90, year of his age.|
|x||Year of Rome 257|
The office of Dictator had been established a few years before. It was absolute for the time it lasted, which was only six months, and generally the Dictator abdicated before the time was expired: the first was Lartius Flavius, one of ths [lit.] Consuls for the year 255.|
|xi||Year of Rome 260|
The people rebelled against the Senate and magistrates, chiefly on account of the severity of creditors. They retreated to the Sacred Hill three miles distant from Rome, but were persuaded back by Menenius Agrippa and Valerius—on this occasion a new description of Magistrates called Tribunes of the people was instituted—they had great power, and their persons were held sacred—the two first were Sicinius and Junius Brutus, but their number was afterwards increased to ten.|
|xii||Year of Rome 265|
The neglect of tilling the lands occasioned by these dissensions, caused a famine the ensuing year.|
The republick being at war with the Volscians, Caius Marcius distingushed [lit.] himself at the siege of Corioli, and obtained the name of Coriolanus. He was afterwards banished by the popular faction, and took refuge at Antium, a city of the Volscians, headed their army, and marched against Rome; but he was stopped by a deputation of Roman Ladies guided by his Mother Veturia, and withdrew his
|xiii||Year of Rome 265|
army; for which he was put to death by the Volscians, in a tumultuous assembly, but buried with military honours, and the Ladies of Rome wore mourning for him ten months. War continued with the neighbouring states, and frequent disputes took place between the Senate and people for the agrarian law, or division of lands.|
The family of Fabii who spontaneously guarded the frontiers of the state, fell, to a man, at Cremera—one infant only remaining.
|xiv||Year of Rome 302|
|In consequence of foreign and domestick troubles, and for the purpose of forming a regular body of jurisprudence, the Consular and Tribunitial powers were suspended, and ten officers named Decemvirs were appointed—one always had the ensigns of Sovereign authority, and all the ten were to be changed yearly.|
|xv||Year of Rome 304|
The Decemvirs at first behaved well, and the legislative code was founded; but Appius Claudius with some of his friends resolved to continue in office, and exiles and deaths were the consequence. Appius, unjustly wanted to gain the daughter of Virginius, who killed her that she might not fall into his hands, and Consuls were restored.|
|xvi||Year of Rome 310|
|The Decemvirs being condemned and Horatius and Valerius appointed Consuls, all was tolerably quiet; but the disputes between the Patricians and Plebeians were soon renewed, and six Magistrates, called Military tribunes, were chosen. They had Consular powers, and three were Patricians, the other three Plebeians.|
|xvii||Year of Rome 357|
|Camillus, as Dictator, took Veii, after a siege of many years. The spoils were very great, but disputes arose between the Senate and people, and Camillus was banished by the popular faction, or rather he withdrew to save the republick from more dissensions,|
|xviii||Year of Rome 365|
|The Gauls marched from Lombardy under Brennus, defeated the Roman army at Allia, and from their barbarous appearance struck so much terror into the inhabitants that the City was abandoned, and only the Capitol preserved by a part of them who took refuge there.|
|xix||Year of Rome 365|
Rome was plundered and burned by the Gauls, and they had nearly surprised the Capitol; but the garrison was rouzed by the cackling of Geese, and headed by Manlius drove off the enemy.|
Camillus raised an army at Ardea, whither he had retired, flew to rescue his country, and, defeating the Gauls, recovered Rome.
|xx||Year of Rome388|
|To quiet the minds of the contending parties, the Military Tribunes were abolished, and it was agreed that one of the Consuls should be a Plebeian; a temple was erected and dedicated to Concord; a Prætor, and Curule Ædiles, who were to be Patricians, where instituted. Camillus died of the plague 389.|
|xxi||Year of Rome442|
|After many engagements with the Gauls, Volscians, and Prænestines, which ended favourably for the Romans, they had a long and most difficult war to carry on against the Samnites a people of the South of Italy. Favius Maximus was appointed Dictator, had great success; and granted peace to the Samnites, after fourteen years contest.|
|xxii||Year of Rome473|
|Pyrrhus, the warlike king of Epyrus, passed over into Italy to assist the Tarentines who were at war with the Romans; he had Elephants in his army which was an unusual sight to the Romans; and occasioned a panick—Headed by their Consul Lœvinus they were defeated. and 18,000 made prisoners.|
|xxiii||Year of Rome 474|
Pyrrhus, advanced within twenty two miles of Rome, and endeavoured, but in vain, to make peace and alliance. Two battles ensued; in the latter of which near Beneventum Pyrrhus was defeated with great loss, and quitted Italy.|
This Prince made fruitless attempts to bribe the Romans; but mutual acts of generosity passed between them.
|xxiv||Year of Rome 489|
Silver money was coined at Rome—The free Citizens capable of bearing arms were found to be 292,224.|
The Romans now extended their conquests beyond Italy—the siege of Messina in Sicily by Hiero king of Syracusa was the pretence for the first war with Carthage—the Romans under Appius Claudius defeated Hiero, and afterwards became his Allies.
|The Romans and Carthaginians fought twenty four years for the Island of Sicily aod [lit.] the empire of the Mediterranean. The first naval triumph was granted to Duilius for beating the Carthaginian fleet off Mylæ, but Regulus was taken prisoner and put to death in Africa, Metellus gained a great victory in Sicily which when peace was made, became a Roman province.|
|xxvi||Year of Rome529|
The Romans after taking the Island of Sardinia were at peace with all the world and closed the temple of Janus ( 519) which was always open during war.|
After five years a war broke out between them and the Illyrians, and they were next invaded by the Transalpine Gauls, who came within three days journey of Rome. This war lasted six years, and ended in their defeat.
|xxvii||Year of Rome 535|
|The Carthaginians broke their treaty with Rome, and under Hannibal besieged Saguntum, a City of Spain in strict, alliance with the Romans. Hannibal next crossed the Alps, defeated the Roman armies at Trebia, Thrasymenus, and Cannæ, with dreadful slaughter. Italy was reduced to the last extremity, and thoughts were entertained of leaving the country, but Scipio who was then very young opposed this plan.|
|xxviii||Year of Rome 536 to 553|
|New armies were inlisted, and Slaves were allowed to serve. Marcellus, Hostilius, and Livius were successful against the Carthaginians; Hannibal was recalled, after remaining fifteen years in Italy. and took the command of the Carthaginian army in Africa: he was finally defeated by Scipio at Zama; which put an end to the second Punick war.|
|xxix||Year of Rome 586|
The Romans having made war on Philip 11, king of Macedon in defence of the Athenians, their Consul Flaminius defeated him at Cynocephalæ, and restored the Grecian cities to their ancient liberty.|
The two Scipios defeated Antiochus the great in Asia; and a final period was put to the Macedonian empire by Paulus Æmilius in the eleventh year of the reign of Perseus, son of Philip, who was taken prisoner.
|xxx||Year of Rome 608|
A third war having arisen between the Carthaginians on account of a disagreement between king Massanissa( an, Ally of the former) and the latter, Scipio the younger was sent into Africa, and destroyed the city of Carthage, rendering the other towns tributaries to the Roman empire.|
Corinth was destroyed the same year by Mummius.
|xxxi||Year of Rome 631|
Riches and luxury began to corrupt the Romans—the two Gracchi wanted to revive the agrarian law, and Tiberius Gracchus was put to death—three thousand persons perished by these dissensions, and Caius Gracchus did not survive many years.|
The Romans defeated the Transalphine Gauls and also Jugurtha king of Numidia who after a seven years war was made prisoner in 645.
|xxxii||Year of Rome 650|
Marius defeated the Cimbri and Teutones, who had made an irruption into Gaul and Spain, and killed 80,000 Romans. He destroyed or took prisoners their whole army, near Aix in France.|
Fresh disturbances arose about the Agrarian law, chiefly excited by the Tribunes Saturninus and Livius Drusus; but they were quelled, as also the rebellion of the Italian states by Marius and Sylla 665.
|xxxiii||Year of Rome 667|
Mithridates king of Pontus, to assist Tigranes, his son in law, king of Armenia, massacred a Roman Pro-Consul, and 80,000 Citizens—He was however driven out of his conquests by Sylla.|
The civil war between Marius and Sylla took place at this time with horrid slaughter. Marius died in 668.
|xxxiv||Year of Rome 675 to 690|
Sylla defeated the Younger Marius and Cinna, as also the two Consuls—he was chosen Dictator, and imitated the cruelty of Marius by the proscription of his enemies. He however resigned his high dignity and died in 676.|
Mithridates again made war on the Romans, but was defeated by Lucullus and Pompey and killed himself. 690.
|xxxv||Year of Rome 690|
|This year was remarkable for the Consulate of Cicero the birth of Octavius( afterwards Augustus Cæsar) the capture of Jerusalem and the Temple after a three months siege by Pompey, and the conspiracy of Catiline, in which many of the Roman nobility were involved, but which ended in their destruction. 691.|
|xxxvi||Year of Rome 692|
|Pompey returned from the East with almost unlimited power, and the first triumvirate was formed. This was an agreement between him, Crassus, and Julius Cæsar to suffer nothing to be done in the republick without their consent. The Roman empire then comprised all Italy and the islands, great part of France, Lombardy, Illyria, Greece, Spain, Africa, Asia minor, Siria, Judæa, Armenia, Media, and Mesopotamia.|
|xxxvii||Year of Rome 694|
|Cæsar was made Consul, and had the government of Gaul. In the course of ten years, he conquered all Transalpine Gaul,( France) subdued the Helvetians( Swiss) and the Belgians( Flemings and Brabantines) defeated Ariovistus, king of the Suevians, and invaded Britain; he took eight hundred cities, and defeated in his different battles three millions of men, He was popular at Rome, and idolized by his soldiers.|
|xxxviii||Year of Rome 704|
|Crassus who had the government of Syria lost his life in an unsuccessful war against the Parthians—Cicero had then the province of Cilicia—the death of Crassus, and that of Julia, the daughter of Cæsar and wife of Pompey, put an end to all freindship between them and a civil war broke out, as Cæsar would not give up his army unless Pompey would do the same.|
|xxxix||Year of Rome704 to 706|
|The Consuls and Senate were for Pompey, and followed him into Thessaly. Cæsar with his victorious army entered Rome, passed over into Spain where he defeated the Lieutenants of Pompey and afterwards Pompey himself at Pharsalia. Pompey fled to Alexandria, and was treacherously put to death by the king of Egypt. Cæsar revenged his death, and settled Cleopatra, the kings sister, on the throne of Egypt.|
|xl||Year of Rome 706 to 709|
|Cæsar defeated the remains of Pompey's party in Africa under Scipio, Cato, and Juba; overthrew king Pharnaces, and the Sons of Pompey, and returned to Rome, where he pardoned those who had borne arms against him, and shared his favours amongst all parties—He was made Consul for ten years and 'perpetual Dictator ; but was assassinated in the Senate by Brutus, Cassius, and other conspirators, in his 56th year.|
|xli||Year of Rome 709 to 712|
|Mark Antony, who was at this time Consul, excited the people against Brutus and Cassius, who were obliged to make their escape and were afterwards defeated by him and Octavius, the nephew, and adoptive son of Cæsar, at Philippi on the confines of Macedonia: (712) these two Generals killed themselves, and all the conspirators were subdued and fell. Cæsar, Antony, and Lepidus, formed a triumvirate and proscribed many.|
|xlii||Year of Rome 722|
|Agrippa, the friend of Octavius, and an excellent officer defeated Sextus Pompey in Sicily; Lepidus withdrew from the triumvirate; Antony remained in Egypt with Cleopatra, and Octavius took advantage of his absence—A war ensued, which ended in the defeat and death of Antony and Cleopatra in Egypt—the battle of Actium, which was a Naval engagement, having given the empire of the world to Octavius,|
|xliii||Year of Rome 722 to 766|
Octavius Cæsar now assumed the Imperial power and title of Augustus : he reigned with justice and moderation, discouraged luxury, and patronized learning. He died in the seventy sixth year of his age, 44 years after the battle of Actium.|
In the thirtieth year of the reign of this Prince, when all the world was at peace, our Saviour Jesus Christ was born at Bethlehem in Judæa—year of Rome 753, of the world 3984. Four million, sixty three thousand inhabitants in the city and suburbs of Rome when they were numbered in the reign of Augustus.
|(in his reign the city and temple of Jerusalem were destroyed)|
|xlv||A. D. 333|
|These were succeeded by Nerva, Trajan, Adrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, and other Emperors to the begining of the 4th, Century when Constantine transferred the throne to Byzanthium, from him called Constantinople.|
|xlvi||A. D. 333|
The Roman empire at this time contained Italy, and the islands, Lombardy, France, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Illyria, Dacia, Pannonia, with part of Germany and Britain. Asia Minor, Armenia, Syria, Judæa, Mesopotamia, and Media, Egypt, Numidia, Mauritanian, and Lydia.|