HISTORY OF SPAIN.
printed by E. Harding,
Frogmore Lodge, Windsor.
HISTORY OF SPAIN.
printed by E. Harding,
Frogmore Lodge, Windsor.
Spain was probably first inhabited by the Celtiberains or Gauls, who cultivated the land, the rich produce of which, together with the precious metals the Pyrenees then abounded with, attracted the commercial nations on the coast of the Mediterranean, particularly the Phenicians, who settled at Cadiz, and founded other cities, which became very opulent, but not being able to defend themselves against the Spaniards, they called in to their assistance the Carthaginians.
|ii||B. C. 237|
They proved but treacherous friends, for they soon made a truce with the Spaniards, took Cadiz, and afterwards made themselves masters of the greatest part of Spain under Hamilcar the father of Hannibal; the Hebrus was the boundary which divided their territory from that of the Romans, Saguntum remaining free : it was by taking this city which claimed the assistance of Rome, that Hannibal gave rise to the second Punick war, in which the Carthaginians were driven out of Spain by the Romans.|
|iii||B. C. 260|
|iv||A. D. 417|
They subdued the other barbarians; while their government subsisted, Spain became the theatre of revolutions and crimes ; bigotry and superstition pervaded every measure, the Clergy possessed more power than the Prince, the most cruel persecutions were carried on against the Jews, and different sects of Christians; at length Witiza, whose wickedness knew no bounds, was dethroned by Rodrigo, who was himself dethroned by the Arabs, Saracens, or Moors.|
|v||A. D. 713|
This Nation, animated by the fanatical religion of Mahomet, had over-run all that part of Africa called Mauritania, when they were invited into Spain by Count Julian in revenge of an affront he had received from Rodrigo, and by the decisive battle of Xeres, put an end to the empire of the Visigoths. Pelagius, a prince of that nation, remained firm to his faith and his duty ; but unable to stem the torrent retired to the mountains of Asturia, where he founded a christian kingdom which he transmitted to his posterity.|
|vi||A. D. 717|
Spain was at first miserable under the governors sent them by the Moors, but a revolution taking place in the Caliphat, by which the family of the Ommiades was dethroned, Abderrahman a prince of that house, who had escaped the general massacre, founded an independent kingdom in Spain, composed of those provinces which had been subject to the Caliphs. He reigned gloriously, making Cordova the seat of government, of the arts, of magnificence, and of pleasure. He was almost always at war with the little kingdom of Asturia.|
|vii||A. D. 788|
|The death of Abderrahman was followed by dissensions amongst his children, and procured some relief to the Spanish Christians; who, had they been more united, might have crushed the Moors, tho' they still possessed more than three fourths of Spain. The kingdom of Asturia (or Leon, and Oviedo) increased under Alphonso the 3d. or Great; under Ramiro the 2d. animated by the supposed patronage of St. James of Compostella, the christians gained in 938 the victory of Simancas; but still the Moors remained powerful till I028.|
|viii||A. D. 1028|
The race of Abderrahman being extinct at this period, his kingdom was dismembered by the ambition of a number of nobles who all usurped the title of king. The christian provinces followed their example; Leon, Castile, Navarre, and Arragon had their respective sovereigns and the history of Spain becomes more confused and less important as the number of kingdoms increase. In Arragon the people still preserved some share in the government, the representatives of cities and towns had a seat in their Cortes, and elected a Justiza, who was the interpreter of the laws, and had the power to restrain the encroachments of the crown.|
A. D. 1037
|ix||A. D. 1037|
From this period Old Castile and Arragon were the two principal monarchies in Spain, Leon being a province of the former. The spirit of chivalry was now at its height in this country; of all the Spanish knights, Rodrigo (the Cid) distinguished himself the most against the Moors. Other knights ranged themselves under his banners, with whom he performed great exploits, and added New Castile and Valentia to the dominions of his master Alphonso VI. king of Old Castile. After his death the war continued against the Moors, and Spain was more drenched in blood than ever.|
|x||A. D. 1096|
Alphonso IX (the battle-giver) king of Arragon and Navarre, dying in 1134 bequeathed his dominions to the knights templars, who being unable to enforce their claim, the states of Arragon chose for their king his brother Garcias Ramiro, and the people of Navarre gave their crown to a descendant of their ancient monarchs. Both kingdoms became a prey to the Moors, but were rescued by Alphonso VIII. king of Castile and Leon, who received Saragossa from the Arragonese. Alphonso Henry Count of Portugal having gained a victory over the Moors took the title of king, which was confirmed to him by the popes.|
A. D. 1139
|xi||A. D. 1139|
The christian kings at length united to expel the Moors, who had received considerable reinforcements from Africa. In 1212 Alphonso 1X, (the noble) king of Castile gained the battle of Sierra Leona. St Ferdinand 111. took Cordova, the province of Murcia and the town of Seville 1248. Alphonso X. (the wise or astronomer) his son was obliged to league with the Moors to subdue his rebellious son Sancho. 1283. His grandson Ferdinand IV. (Surnamed the Summond) took Gibraltar from the Moors.|
|xii||A. D. 1309|
Alphonso xi king of Castile, who took Algeziras from the Moors, was succeeded in 1350 by Peter 1. or the cruel, a prince equally perfidious, bloody, and debauched. Henry Count of Trastamara, his natural brother, assisted by the french, led by du Gueslin, dethroned him but he was restored by an english army, under the command of Edward the black prince; he repaid his benefactor with ingratitude, and being again attacked by his brother, was defeated, taken prisoner and slain.|
|xiii||A. D. 1369|
Henry Count of Trastamara succeeded to the crown of Castile. Spain continued nearly in the same situation till the reign of Henry IV. of Castile, whose debaucheries having excited the nobles to revolt, a civil war ensued, and Henry was compelled to declare his sister Isabella heiress to his crown, tho' he had a daughter. Isabella succeeded him, and by her Marriage with Ferdinand king of Arragon and Sicily, all the christian diadems in Spain became united.|
|xiv||A. D. 1479|
|Tho' inseparably united in whatever regarded their common interest, they governed their states like independant sovereigns. By their wise policy they suppressed the disorders civil wars had occasioned, but their intemperate zeal prompted them to found the inquisition, and to banish the Jews. They terminated the Moorish dominions in Spain by the taking of Granada. The Pope conferred on them the title of their Catholic Majesties. Under the auspices of Isabella, Columbus discovered America. She died in 1506|
|xv||A.. D. 1479|
Ferdinand took a successful, but not honorable part, in the wars in Italy, he seized on the kingdom of Naples and of Navarre, he died in 1516. The issue of Ferdinand and Isabella, Juan and Isabella both died before their parents and left no heirs. Joanna (la folle) married Philip Archduke of Austria, and was Mother to Charles I. of Spain, and Emperor, by the name of Charles V. Catharine married Ist. Arthur Prince of Wales, 2dly, his brother Henry V11I. king of England. Maria married the king of Portugal; Ferdinand married 2dly. Germaine of Foix by whom he left no issue.|
|He was an able statesman and general, of indefatigable industry and quick in discerning the characters of men; but his ambition led him to be crafty, and treacherous, and to employ his talents to the disquiet of his neighbours and subjects. He was elected Emperor of Germany in I519, By his own valour and policy. and by that of his generals; he was successful in his wars. Francis I king of France and Pope Clement VI1. were his prisoners. The Cortes of Castile having refused to grant him supplies he subverted their ancient constitution.|
|xvii||A. D. 1516|
He was a furious persecutor of the protestants. He resigned the crowns of Spain, Naples Milan, and the Netherlands to his son Philip in 1552 and retired to a Monastery, where he died in 1555.|
He married Isabella daughter of Emanuel king of Portugal, and had issue,
Philip, II, who succeeded him.
Maria, married the Emperor Maximilian II.
Catherine married John, Prince of Portugal.
Several sons who died infants.
The famous Don John of Austria was his natural son.
|xviii||A. D. 1555|
|He was gloomy, jealous, haughty and vindictive; a persecutor of the protestants, particularly in the Netherlands, where the cruelties of the Duke of Alva occasioned a revolt, and gave rise to the republic of the Seven United Provinces. He took Portugal, but received a mortifying and severe check in the defeat of his invincible armada, and the great successes of the English against him. No Prince ever possessed more power, and resources; but his wars, and intrigues exhausted his treasures; and his people dazzled by the great influx of riches from America, became indolent, and neglected commerce and agriculture.|
|xix||A. D. 1555|
|He put to death his eldest son Don Carlos, and is accused of having poisoned his third wife. He died in I598. He married Ist Mary daughter to John III. king of Portugal, by whom he had the unfortunate Don Carlos. 2dly, Mary 1st queen of England who had no children. 3dly. Isabella daughter to Henry I1, king of France by whom he had Isabella, married to Albert, Archduke of Austria. Catherine married Charles Emanuel Duke of Savoy. 4th. Ann daughter to the Emperor Maximilian 11 (his neice) by whom he had : Ferdinand, Carlos, and Diego. who died young. Philip I11. who succeeded him. 1598|
|He was virtuous but weak, and sacrificed the blood and treasure of his kingdoms to subdue the Low Countries, but with so little success that he was at last obliged to conclude a truce of twelve years with the Seven United provinces in order to preserve the twelve others. His intemperate zeal, and that of his minister, the Duke of Lerma, prompted him to expel the Moors, (his most industrious subjects) from his kingdom, which now depopulated by wars and emigrations, and enervated by luxury, sunk into a state of languor, from which it has never fully recovered. He died in 162I.|
He married Margaret daughter to Charles Archduke of Austria, by whom he had|
Ist Philip 1V. who succeeded him.
2d Carlos, Admiral of Spain.
3d Ferdinand. Cardinal and governor of Flanders.
4thly Ann, married Lewis, XIII king of France.
5thly Mary Ann married the Emperor Ferdinand 111. I62I
|Tho' of a more enterprizing disposition than his father, he was so lost in the pursuit of pleasure, that he left the cares of government to his minister Olivares, whose ambition to raise the house of Austria to absolute dominion, involved Spain in the war that desolated Europe for thirty years. During the prosecution of this war, Portugal shook off the Spanish yoke, placing the Duke of Braganza on the throne, whose family have ever since retained it. Peace was at length restored (in 1659) by the treaty of the Pyrennees, and the marriage of Maria Theresa the kings daughter to Lewis X1V king of France. His Catholic Majesty died in 1665.|
He married 1st. Isabella, daughter to Henry IV. king of France by whom he had:|
1st Balthasar, who died before him.
2d Maria Theresa, married to Lewis X1V. king of France, and was grand mother to Philip V, king of Spain.
2d. Ann daughter to the Emperor Ferdinand 111. by whom he had:
1st. Philip Prosper. 2. Ferdinand, Thomas, both died before him.
3d, Charles suceeeded [lit.] him
4thly. Margaret married the Emperor Leopold, and was grand-mother to the Prince of Bavaria, who was declared heir to the crown of Spain but died in 1699.
|He ascended the throne when only a child, and was weak both in body and mind. The conclusion of his reign was disturbed by the intrigues of foreign princes for the succession to his crown. His ministers incensed at the treaties made to divide his dominions, prevailed on him to declare the Prince of Bavaria his heir, and, he dying, to name the Archduke Charles in his stead; but afterwards, influenced by superstition, he made a secret will in favour of Philip, second grandson of his Sister Maria Theresa, and of Lewis X1V of France he died in 1700.|
1st Maria Theresa daughter to the Duke of Orleans.
2d. Mary Ann de Neubourg daughter to the Elector of Bavaria, but left no issue.
|Notwithstanding his grandmother Maria Theresa having renounced all claim to the crown of Spain and the war carried on by the Emperor, England and the States General to obtain it for the Archduke Charles, which reduced both him and France to the lowest despondency, yet he was acknowledged king of Spain by all Europe, at the peace of Utrecht in 1716. Virtuous, but weak, he suffered himself to be governed successively by the Princess Ursini and his 2d wife Elizabeth Farnese who sometimes roused him to vigorous measures. Under the house of Bourbon Spain began to revive.|
He resigned his crown to his son Lewis, but at his death re-assumed it; he spent the remainder of his life in indolence and superstition and died in I746. He married 1st Maria Louisa Gabriella daughter to the Duke of Savoy by whom he had|
1st Lewis 1 to whom he resigned his crown, but who died in I730.
2d Philip died young.
3d Ferdinand VI his successor.
He married 2d, Elizabeth Farnese, daughter and heiress of the Duke of Parma by whom he had:
1st Charles king of the two Sicilies and afterwards of Spain.
3d Philip Duke of Parma and six other children. 1746
|Naturally peaceful, not all the intrigues of the French court could make him take part in their warlike projects, but he placed his glory in reviving commerce and encouraging arts and manufactures. He was extravagantly fond of music. He married Maria Josepha of Portugal, and dying without issue, was succeeded by his brother Charles, king of the Two Sicilies. 1759|
|He resigned the kingdom of Sicily to his third son Ferdinand. Apprehending that his dominions in America would be endangered by the war carrying on between Great Britain and France, he entered into the family compact by which all the branches of the House of Bourbon engaged to support each other. He died in 1789.|
He married Maria Amelia daughter to Augustus 111 king of Poland and Elector of Saxony by whom he had:|
1st Philip Anthony Duke of Calabria declared an idiot and incapable of succeeding to the crown.
2d Charles Anthony Prince of Asturias who succeeded him.
3d Ferdinand Anthony king of Naples.
4th Gabriel Anthony.
5th Anthony Pascal.
6th Francis Xavier.
7th Maria Josepha.
8th Maria Louisa married Leopold Archduke of Austria, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and afterwards Emperor of Germany. 1759
Charles 1V, reigning king of Spain born in 1748, married Louisa Maria Theresa of Parma by whom he had issue.|
1st Charlotte Joanna married the late king of Etruria.
2d Maria Louisa Josephina married to thePrince [lit.] of Brazil.
4th Charles Maria Isidore.
5th Maria Isabella married to the Prince Royal of Naples.
6th Francis de Paule Anthony Maria.
The Princes and Princesses of Spain are styled Infants and Infantas.